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Indian Renewable Energy Liberalisation, Globalisation and R&D.pptx

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Indian Renewable Energy- Liberalisation, Globalisation and R&DSubair.KMphil SSDCSSTPICUG

Presentation PlanIntroductionIndia’s Renewable Energy PotentialMethodologyRenewable Energy Innovation SystemOrganisational ArchitectureStructure of Renewable Energy in IndiaRenewable Energy for Rural ApplicationsPolicy Network for RE DevelopmentRenewable Energy Regulatory FrameworkRenewable energy R&D capacity & capabilityImpact of Liberalisation And GlobalisationEvaluation and ConclusionReferences2

IntroductionIndia is the fourth largest country with regard to installed power generation capacity in the field of renewable energy sources.India was the first Country in the World to set up a Ministry of non-conventional Energy resources in the early 1980s.The Greenpeace International, European Renewable Energy (EREC) in its report released in March, 2009 has projected that by 2050; about 69% of the electricity produced in India will come from renewable energy sources.The market in India for the Renewable Energy business is growing at an annual rate of 15%. The scope for private investment in Renewable Energy is estimated to about $3 billion.(OECD)3

India’s various renewable energy resources areSolar EnergyWind EnergyBiomass energyHydroWaste to Power EnergyGeothermal Tidal Energy4

India’s RE PotentialSource- MNRE5

MethodologyData collected from secondary sources- different articles, research papers, some websites, books, Government orders, policies, acts and from MNRE and Planning Commission’s website6

Renewable Energy Innovation SystemDefined as a network of institutions public and private, whose activities and interactions are central to the development, modification and diffusion of new technologies (Freeman, 1987; Nelson, 1993). Both domestic and international linkages between institutions are particularly relevant for global energy innovation key partnerships include those between different agencies within governments; between the public, private and non-profit sectors; between developing- and industrialized-country institutions; and between domestic and transnational institutions (PCAST, 1999).7

ActorsPlanning CommissionMNRECERCSERCIREDASRDA(State Renewable Development Agency)Institutes/OrganisationsPublic SectorSECC-WETSSS NIREAHECBHELBEL (Public )Private SectorSuzlonEnerconTata BP SolarVestas-RRB(Private), NEG- Micon 8


Organisational Architecture10

MNREMNRE is the nodal Ministry of the GOI for all matters relating to new and renewable energy. The aim is to develop and deploy new and renewable energy for supplementing the energy requirements of the country. The History of MNRE Creation isCommission for Additional Sources of Energy (CASE) in 1981.Department of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (DNES) in 1982.Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (MNES) in 1992.Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (MNES) renamed as Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) in 200611

The Solar Energy Centre (SEC)Established in 1982The Centre has been working on various aspects of solar resource utilization and technology development in collaboration with other research institutions, implementing agencies and industry.Serves as an effective interface between the Government and institutions, industry & user organizations for development, promotion and widespread utilization of solar energy in the country.Functions areResearch and DevelopmentHuman Resource DevelopmentAdvisory and Consultancy services12

Centre for Wind Energy Technology (C-WET)Established in Chennai in the year 1998, as an autonomous R&D institution by MNRE.It has a Wind Turbine Test Station (WTTS) at Kayathar with the technical & partial financial support by DANIDA, Govt. of Denmark.Research and Development in C-WET are classified into five generic areas:Improvement in performance of existing Wind Turbine Installations.Research support for Wind resource Assessment.Humanpower Training and HRDTechnology support to Wind Power Industry.Research and advanced Technology Development.13

Sardar Swaran Singh National Institute of Renewable Energy (SSS NIRE)Is an Autonomous Institute under MNRESSS-NIRE is an apex R&D Institute to carry out research and developmental activities in the area of renewable energy in general and bio-energy in particular.Research&Development Plan (2011-2016) areBiodiesel production technology, catalysis and resources (non-edible oilseed, algae etc)Hydro-cracking of waste plant/vegetable oil to obtain bio-crude and subsequent distilled products.Hydrogen generation from producer gas generated from biomassCleaning, bottling and piping of biogasHydrogen generation from bio-gas generated from crop residues.Use of hydrogen generated from biogas and producer gas as a feed stock in fuel-cells for electricity generationUse of producer gas for bio-ethanol generation via biological conversion route.Pyrolysis of biomass and its integration with the biological conversion techniques to produce ethanol.14

Alternate Hydro Energy Centre (AHEC)Established in IIT, Roorkee,1982.To promote power generation through the development of Small Hydropower projects (SHP).The centre carries out the environment and energy auditing of process and allied industries and small hydro projects.It provides services in the fields ofSmall Hydropower Development covering Refurbishment,Renovation and Modernisation of SHP Stations, Detailed Engineering Designs and Construction drawings,Technical Specifications of Turn Key execution/equipment Supply, Complete Investigations, Planning, Designs and Execution, Techno-Economic Appraisal, R & D/Monitoring of Projects, Remote Sensing and GIS Based Applications. Power System Planning and Operation, Energy AuditingDrainage/Irrigation Related Projects, Environment Impact Assessment and Eco-restoration, R&D in the Field of Other Renewable Energy Sources (Solar, Biomass, Wind etc.)15

The Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA)IREDA is a Public Limited Government Company established in 1987.To promote, develop and extend financial assistance for RE and energy efficiency /conservation projects with the motto: "ENERGY FOR EVER.Objectives of IREDA are To strive to be competitive institute through customer satisfaction.Improvement in the efficiency of services provided to customers through continual improvement of systems, processes and resources.To increase IREDA’s share in the RE sector.To maintain its position as a leading organisation to provide efficient and effective financing in RE and Energy conservation projects.To give support to specific projects and schemes for generating electricity and energy through new and renewable sources and conserving energy through energy efficiency.16

Structure of Renewable Energy in India17

Renewable Energy for Rural ApplicationsMNRE has focused on rural applications through following activitiesNational Biogas and Manure Management Programme.(NBMMP)Biogas based distributed/ Grid Power Generation ProgrammeRemote Village Electrification ProgrammeVillage Energy Security Test ProjectsSpecial Area Demonstration Project SchemeTidal EnergyElectric Vehicle18

GOI’s InitiativesPrivate sector companies are partnering with government and co-investing in R&D and technology development. Fiscal and financial incentives, such as, capital / interest subsidies, accelerated depreciation, nil/concessional excise and customs duties; Preferential tariff for grid interactive renewable power in most potential States following the provisions made under the National Electricity Policy 2005 and National Tariff Policy 2006, Uniform guidelines by CERC for fixation of such preferential tariffs being issued every year; Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission launched to facilitate large scale capital investment in solar energy sector, Payment Security Mechanism for grid connected solar power projects under the Mission. 19

Policy Network for Renewable Energy DevelopmentNew and Renewable energy policy statement 2005- proposed to send appropriate signals to industry, scientific and technical community, business and investors to indigenously develop new and RE technologies, products & services, at par with international standards, specifications, and performance parameters for deployment in a manner so as to arrive at an optimal fuel-mix that most effectively meets the overall concerns of the country.Electricity Act, 2003– Promoted generation of electricity from renewable sources.National Electricity Policy, 2005The Policy emphasized on the full development of feasible hydro projects and Laid downprocedures for the speedy implementation of the same.Integrated Energy Policy, 2006Emphasized use of Renewables for reducing dependence on energy imports.20

Rural Electrification Policy, 2006The Policy recognized that non-conventional energy sources can be appropriately optimally utilized to make available reliable supply of electricity to each and every household.Various states give financial subsidies on renewable energy utilities like home lighting systems, solar water heater etc. The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy also gives various incentives to individuals for installing various such utilities.21

Renewable Energy Regulatory FrameworkRegulatory interventions for promotion of RE sources throughdetermination of tariff;specifying renewable purchase obligation (RPO); facilitating grid connectivity; promotion of development of marketNTP has on the role of regulatory commission; mechanism for promoting RE and timeframe for implementation, etc.The National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) suggests increasing the share of RE in the total energy up to 15 by 2020.22

Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) and Central Electricity Authority (CEA) are declaring, revising, and modifying renewable power regulatory framework such as RE policy, RPOs, Feed in Tariffs (FiTs), Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) mechanism, grid connectivity and forecasting provisions etc. on a regular basis23

Renewable energy R&D capacity & capabilityThe role of RE R&D is important to promote energy efficiency, to secure India’s energy security.IITs hold maximum number of papers in solar energy research and are way ahead, followed by DRDO and CSIR.Among the universities, Shivaji University tops the list with 50 publications.In solar energy research 2-authored papers had maximum occurrence followed by 3 and 4 authored papers. In Wind energy IITs top the list of PublicationsIn Bio-fuel, CSIR tops the list in publishing papers followed by the IITs and IISc while in academic sector Jadavpur University has published 10 research paper followed by BHU and Delhi University In Bio-energy India holds 8 patents.In bio-energy maximum numbers of papers are 2-authored or 3-authoredSource- Web of Science24

Impact of Liberalisation And GlobalisationFDI PolicyFDI-RE technologies and projects will be allowed 100% foreign equity through automatic approval route to attract FDI to this sector.Under the automatic route no prior Government or the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) approval needs to be obtained.Investors are only required to notify the concerned Regional Office of RBI within 30 days of receipt of inward remittances and file required documents with that office within 30 days of issue of shares to foreign investors.25

Special Economic ZoneThe SEZ Policy was introduced by the central government in 2000, till August 2010 more than 370 SPZs were established in India.SEZs were introduced in order to promote foreign investments, provide good environment for business, the territory is treated as a foreign enclaves, exempted from custom duties. SEZ’s authorities are bound to provide investments within its territory with the electricity connection. It may be done by establishing Independent Power Producer (IPP26

Financial PolicyThe income-tax laws allow 80 % of the cost of the windmill to be set off against taxable income.Income from power generation can get a tax holiday for 10 years.Concessions on import duty on specified wind turbine parts are offered.States provide for a guarantee market by entering into purchase agreements for power projects.State Electricity Regulatory Commission sets up electricity charges: the commission specifies generic preferential tariffs for renewable energy technologies; there is also a possibility to apply for determination of project specific tariffs.Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA) offers loans for renewable projects in private sector.27

Evaluation and ConclusionIndia has great potential and capacity for producing Energy from renewable sourcesPrivatisation and foreign investment are making more complex Indian RE ScenarioTo reduce Energy poverty and to protect our Economy and Environment India must concentrate on renewable Energy Sources rather than Fossil fuels.India should focus more on RE R&DPrivate sectors R&D are less in RE fieldGovernment should give more incentives to promote private sectors into this field.28

ReferencesA.Ashwin kumar, K.KARTHICK (2001), Clean Energy Resources Available in India, International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, Vol.2, No.1, February 2011.Subhash Mallah, N.K. Bansal (2010), Renewable energy for sustainable electrical energy system in India Energy Policy.B. S. K. Naidu, Indian scenario of renewable energy for sustainable development Energy Policy.Jyoti K. Parikh, R. Ramanathan, Linkages among energy, agriculture and environment in rural India, Energy Economics 21 1999.Understanding Energy Challenges in Indian, International energy agency.WebsitePlanning commissionMinistry of New and Renewable energy(